Macrotyloma axillare (E. Mey.) Verdc.
Macrotyloma axillare (E. Mey.) Verdc. var. axillare
Macrotyloma axillare (E. Mey.) Verdc. var. glabrum (E. Mey.) Verdc.
Macrotyloma axillare (E. Mey.) Verdc. var. macranthum (Brenan) Verdc.
Clitoria viridiflora Hook.
Clitoria viridiflora Bouton ex Hook.
Dolichos axillaris E. Mey.
Dolichos axillaris E. Mey. var. glaber E. Mey.
Dolichos axillaris E. Mey. var. macranthus Brenan
Family: Fabaceae (alt. Leguminosae) subfamily: Faboideae tribe: Phaseoleae subtribe: Phaseolinae. Also placed in: Papilionaceae.
umhlanzo wenhliziyo (Africa); Archer axillaris (Australia); lime-yellow pea, perennial horse gram (English); Archer Dolichos (French); macrotiloma (Brazil).
Trailing and twining perennial, with an erect basal stem usually to about 1 cm diameter, developing to 3 cm in unrestricted stands, and with the ability to climb to >10 m up an appropriate framework such as trees; strong woody taproot and rootstock. Stems cylindrical, glabrescent to pubescent with appressed hairs; no tendency to develop adventitious roots. Leaves trifoliolate, with leaflets ovate-lanceolate, to 7.5 cm long and 4 cm across; glabrous to pubescent, slightly glossy on upper surface, paler, matt below; stipules to 5 mm long. Inflorescence an axillary raceme, comprising 2-4 (-10) whitish to greenish yellow papilionate flowers, with standard oblong-elliptical, 1-2.4 cm long and 0.6-1.5 cm across. Pod linear oblong, shortly stipitate, laterally flattened, 3-8 cm long, and 5-8 mm broad, glabrous to pubescent, with terminal point up to 7 mm long; containing (5-) 7-8 (-9) seeds. Seeds subovoid, 3-4 mm long, 2.5-3 mm broad, hard and smooth, buff to reddish brown, with sparse to dense black mottling; 50,000-200,000 seeds/kg.
Africa: Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire), Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa (East and North Cape Province, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province), Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
Indian Ocean: Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion.
Middle East: Saudi Arabia, northern Yemen.
Asia: Sri Lanka.
Australia, Papua New Guinea.
Mainly used as permanent pasture. Useful for cool season standover and agroforestry. Could be used for cut-and-carry, but vigorous, twining habit may cause difficulty. No record of conservation for hay and silage .
Often found on deep stony and sandy loam soils, but also on loams and clay loams. Not well adapted to heavier clays or hard-setting soils. In cultivation, grown on sands to clays, providing they are well drained. Prefers a pH between 6 and 7, but grows successfully between 5.5 and 7.5. Indications are that more acid conditions have an adverse influence on the effectiveness of nodulation of M. axillare , rather than on plant growth per sé. Tolerates moderate salinity (4-10 dS/m). Considered useful in renovating soils that have become unproductive through continuous cultivation. Appears to grow better on less fertile soils, initially growing Eucalyptus spp., than on fertile, previously-rainforest soils where Neonotonia wightii is better adapted.
Although found in areas with annual rainfall as low as 375 mm, most collections have been made between about 750 mm and 1,700 mm. In cultivation, it is normally grown in areas with over 1,000 mm/yr, and has been successful up to 3,000 mm/yr. Very drought tolerant, surviving in situations with a very dry 8-month winter-spring season and during hot dry spells in summer, but has no tolerance of waterlogging .
Found between 16ºN and 31ºS, at low altitudes in the subtropics and higher altitudes, up to 2,250 m, in the tropics, mostly in areas with an average annual temperature between about 18 and 26ºC. Grows best under relatively mild conditions (optimum day night temperature 26/21ºC). Commences growth earlier in the season than most other warm season legumes. Tops are killed by frost, but plants recover from basal shoots. Generally poor long-term persistence in frosted areas.
Has moderate shade tolerance, thriving in agroforestry situations under tree canopies with about 50% light interception.
Exhibits juvenility in flowering in the year of establishment, but in succeeding years, flowers over much of the growing season. Flowering and seeding may continue until the plants are frosted, or in frost-free areas, continue throughout the winter and early spring. Pods mature 30-60 days after flowering, depending on temperature during development.
Because of its erect main stem, and no tendency to develop adventitious roots on prostrate stems, M. axillare is susceptible to regular or heavy grazing. Plants become dormant during the cool season, and may be grazed heavily until growth resumes in spring. In non-agroforestry situations where plants do not have the benefit from and protection afforded by trees, rotational grazing with fairly long intervals between grazings is necessary for replenishment and survival of stand. If protected while seeding, seed will shatter and later germinate to thicken the sward . When cut, should be at >30 cm high, to preserve buds on the lower main axis.
Older plants recover well following fire, and germination of soil seed is enhanced, with a consequent improvement in stand density.
Guidelines for the establishment and management of sown pastures.
Fairly promiscuous in its rhizobial requirements, nodulating most effectively with Bradyrhizobium Group J (CB 1024 in Australia), the strain also used for Lablab purpureus and Cajanus cajan . While hand-harvested seed has high levels of hard seed requiring scarification prior to planting, machine-harvested seed receives sufficient scarification during the threshing process. Normally sown into a well-prepared seedbed at 2-4 kg/ha seed at a depth of 1-2.5 cm, although can be established by broadcasting seed onto the surface following severe fire. Good seedling vigour. Grazing should be withheld for a few months after emergence, since young plants are erect and vulnerable to defoliation and trampling.
Tolerates low fertility, but responds to application of phosphorus fertilisers in low P soils. The adverse effect of declining pH on effectiveness of nodulation suggests that addition of molybdenum may also be of value in more acid soils.
Compatibility (with other species)
Grows successfully with tufted grasses and other twining legumes. If left unchecked, it will grow over other species, which is an advantage in the suppression of shrubby weeds, but a disadvantage where tree recruitment is sought in an agroforestry situation.
Pests and diseases
Very low disease incidence. Main disease is legume little-leaf caused by a phytoplasma . Rarely affected by amnemus weevil (Amnemus quadrituberculatus) or rough brown weevil (Baryopadus corrugatus) (both Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Bean fly (Ophiomyia (Agromyza, Melanagromyza) phaseoli: Diptera, Agromyzidae) sometimes attacks young seedlings, but not as commonly as with Macroptilium spp. Also susceptible to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and reniform nematode (Rotylenchus reniformis).
Ability to spread
Spreads by virtue of stem elongation and violent shattering of mature pods. Seed is also ingested by cattle, a proportion passing through the animal undigested and germinating in dung pats.
Has become a serious weed in open forest and woodland, where it climbs on woody vegetation, damaging the growth form of developing saplings.
Crude protein levels range from about 12-23% of the DM in actively growing material to 6% in mature, dormant material. Phosphorus levels also decline by up to 50% with age.
M. axillare is initially not relished by cattle, but once accustomed to it, they eat it readily. It is also suggested that young growth is less palatable than older growth. Leaves are somewhat bitter, probably reflecting moderately high tannin levels.
No record of toxicity.
DM yields under average conditions are usually below 10 t/ha, although on fertile soils under irrigation up to 16 t/ha are possible.
No specific data.
Self-fertile, the flowers being cleistogamous. Diploid , 2n = 20.
Some difficulty in seed production due to extended flowering period and hence spread of maturity, shattering seed pods, and long trailing stems that tangle machinery. Irrigation a week before harvest can reduce tendency for pods to shatter. Yields of 100-200 kg/ha are normal, although much higher yields are possible, particularly if header harvest is followed by vacuum harvest.
Tolerant of pre-emergent benfluralin. Seedlings susceptible to acifluorfen, 2,4-DB and 2,4-D, but tolerant of bentazone, fluazifop-butyl and sethoxydim. 2,4-DB can be used on established stands at rates of up to 2.5 kg/ha active ingredient, but not 2,4-D that is lethal even at 0.6 kg/ha a.i.
- Long growing season .
- Drought tolerant.
- Grows on "old cultivation" land.
- Little pest or disease problem.
- Intolerant of waterlogging .
- Intolerant of heavy grazing.
- Declines in frosted land.
- Can become a weed in forest areas.
- Blumenthal, M.J., O'Rourke, P.K., Hilder, T.B. and Williams, R.J. (1989) Classification of the Australian collection of the legume Macrotyloma. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 40, 591-604.
- Blumenthal, M.J. and Staples, I.B. (1993) Origin, evaluation and use of Macrotyloma as forage -a review. Tropical Grasslands, 27, 16-29.
- Cameron, D.G. (1986) Tropical and subtropical pasture legumes. 10. Axillaris (Macrotyloma axillare ): A legume with limited roles. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 112, 59-63.
- Gillet, J.B., Polhill, R.M. and Verdourt, B. (1971) Flora of tropical East Africa. (Part 3): Leguminosae, sub-family Papilionoideae. Redhead, R.M. and Polhill, R.M. (eds) Crown Agents.
- Luck, P.E. (1965). Dolichos axillaris - prospects in Queensland. CSIRO Australian Plant Introduction Review, 1, 50a-51a.
- Staples, I.B. (1992) Macrotyloma axillare (E. Meyer) Verdc. In: 't Mannetje, L. and Jones, R.M. (eds) Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 4. Forages. pp. 161-163. (Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen, the Netherlands).
- Verdcourt, B. (1970) Studies in the Leguminosae-Papilionoideae for the 'Flora of Tropical East Africa': III. Kew Bulletin, 24, 402.
- Verdcourt, B. (1982) A revision of Macrotyloma (Legum.) Hooker's icones plantarum, 38, 53.
(K5049, CPI 17814, CPI 28696)
|Queensland, Australia (1966)||Institutional collection from Grassland Research Station at Kitale in Kenya - origin unknown. Vigorous and high yielding in subtropics; producing rapid cover, and retaining leaves until frosted; very drought tolerant.|
|'Guatá'||Brazil (late 1980s)||Selected from within 'Archer', with 10-12% more DM production, and higher seed yields.|
|'Jade'||Brazil (2004)||Hybrid developed by the Instituto de Zootecnia by crossing 'Archer' and 'Guatá', and selecting for DM and seed production, lower tannin levels in the leaves, and resistance to pests and disease. Grown successfully with Brachiaria brizantha cv.Victoria, and Panicum maximum cvv.Tanzania, Mombasa and Massai.|
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