Bothriochloa ischaemum

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Seeding in the southern USA.

Inflorescences.

Seeds.

Tufted perennial - 'stemmy' at maturity.

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Scientific name

Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng

Subordinate taxa:
Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng var. ischaemum
Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng var. songarica (Rupr. ex Fisch. & C. A. Mey.) Celarier & J. R. Harlan

Synonyms

Amphilophis ischaemum (L.) Nash
Andropogon ischaemum L.
Andropogon ischaemum var. americanus Hack.
Andropogon ischaemum var. ischaemum
Andropogon ischaemum var. radicans (Lehm.) Hack.
Andropogon ischaemum var. songaricus Rupr. ex Fisch. & Meyen
Andropogon taiwanensis Ohwi

Family/tribe

Family: Poaceae (alt. Gramineae) subfamily: Panicoideae tribe: Andropogoneae.

Common names

King Ranch bluestem, Texas yellow beardgrass, plains blue-stem, King Ranch blue-stem, Turkistan (Turkestan) blue-stem, yellow blue-stem (United States);  barbon, chiendent à balai, barbe-de-dieu, pied-de-poule, Andropogon Ischème, Bothriochloa Ischème

Morphological description

Perennial, with foliage from 30-80 cm and fertile culms from 1-1.5 m.  Plants usually caespitose (matted or tufted), occasionally stoloniferous or almost rhizomatous under close grazing or cutting.  Stems slender, erect (sometimes decumbent at the base), simple or sparingly branched, naked at the top, solid, grooved on one side, light green turning yellowish at maturity;  nodes brown-purple, glabrous (var. ischaemum) to bearded with short appressed hair (var. songarica).  Leaves glaucous, largely basal;  blades flat to folded, 5-25 cm long, 2-4.5 mm wide, glabrous, or scabrous to thinly pilose or with long, scattered hairs, particularly on the upper surface, near the collar;  ligule a fringed membrane 0.5-1.5 mm long.  Inflorescence a subdigitate, terminal panicle, purplish in colour, comprising (1) 2-10 racemes, each 2.5-9 cm long;  rachis and pedicels silky-ciliate with long, soft hairs.  Spikelets in pairs, one sessile and perfect (3-4.5 mm long, narrowly ovate, lower glumes hirsute below, with about 1 mm hairs, lacking a dorsal pit, giving rise to a geniculate, twisted awn, 9-17 mm long), and the other pedicellate, as large or slightly larger, and sterile.  1-1.2 million seed units (sessile spikelet + pedicellate spikelet + awn ) and about 3 million caryopses/kg.

Distribution

Native to:
Africa:  Algeria.
Asia:  Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, China, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Russian Federation (Ciscaucasia, Dagestan, Altai), Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.
South Asia:  Northern India, Nepal, Pakistan.
Europe:  Austria, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, France (incl. Corsica), Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Moldova, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine (incl. Krym), Yugoslavia.
Often the dominant grass , growing in dry stony places, borders of fields and slopes on waste ground, roadsides, and in pastures.

Naturalised elsewhere, including North America.

Uses/applications

Mostly used as permanent pasture, but can produce good hay.  Good for soil conservation and reseeding eroded soils, producing excellent ground cover, even on infertile soils, and possessing an extensive root system.

Feeding value

Nutritive value

Grazed fairly readily by cattle and sheep.

Palatability/acceptability

No toxicity has been reported.

Toxicity

Production potential

Dry matter

Animal gains per hectare during the growing season are 4-8 times those from unimproved rangeland, largely due to increased carrying capacity.  In short-term trials, young steers gained 0.24-0.66 kg/day (average 0.45 kg/day) over a 10-week period.  Beef gain response to N fertilisation may result from higher forage production and higher forage quality.

Animal production

An obligate pseudogamous apomict ;  2n = 40, 50, 60.

Genetics/breeding

Yields of pure live seed of usually range from 20-40 kg/ha.  Crops do not mature uniformly and harvesting is difficult due to fluffiness of the seed.  A light harvest is possible from the early summer crop, but the main crop is harvested in autumn.  Seed crops are best established in 60-90 cm rows.  Each crop should be preceded by a cleaning cut to 10-15 cm 6-8 weeks prior to harvest, accompanied by an application of 50-60 kg/ha N.  Lodging may result if crops are started too early or if excessive N is applied.

Seed production

Susceptible to metsulfuron methyl and triasulfuron as a pre-emergent application, but tolerant as a post-emergent at 2-3 leaf stage.
Susceptible to imazapic as pre- and post-emergent.

Herbicide effects

Strengths

Limitations

    

Other comments

Celarier, R.P. (1957) The cyto-geography of the Bothriochloa ischaemum complex. II. Chromosome behaviour. Amer. J. Bot., 44, 729-738.
Celarier, R.P. and Harlan, J.R. (1957) Apomixis in Bothriochloa, Dichanthium and Capillipedium. Phytomorphology, 7, 93-102.
Celarier, R.P. and Harlan, J.R. (1958) The cytogeography of the Bothriochloa ischaemum complex. Gramineae. I. Taxonomy, and geographic distribution. J. Linn. Soc. (Bot.), 55, 755-760.
Christov, M.A. and Moskova, R. (1972) The apomixis and the polyembryony in Bothriochloa ischaemum L. (=Andropogon ischaemum (L.) Keng.) Genetika Selek., 5, 71-86. [Russ. or Bulg.; Eng. summ.]
Moskova, R. (1974) Ultrastructure of some pistil parts prior to flowering in Bothriochloa ischaemum L. Genetika Selek., 7, 460-470 [Bulg.; Eng. Summ.] [Biol. Abstr. 59 (1975) No. 68040.]
Moskova, R. (1975) Ultrastructure of Bothriochloa ischaemum L. cells degenerating in the process of ovule development. Fitologiya, Bulg., 3, 47-48. [Russ.; Eng. summ.]
Moskova, R. (1976) On the ultrastructure of Bothriochloa ischaemum , L.: endosperm and aleurone layer cells. Fitologiya, 4, 34-45. [Bulg.; Eng. summ.] [Biol. Abstr. 63, (1977) No.7070.]
Moskova, R.D. (1975) An electron microsopic study of the nucellus cells in Bothriochloa ischaemum L. Caryologia, 28, 295-300.

Selected references

http://herbarium.usu.edu/treatments/Bothriochloa.htm
http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Gbase/data/pf000185.htm
http://www.dasnr.okstate.edu/nitrogen_use/blue_nue.pdf
http://www.forages.css.orst.edu/Topics/Species/Grasses/Grass_Varieties/B.html#Bothriochloaischaemum

Internet links

Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng var. ischaemum

Cultivars

Country/date released

Details

'El Kan'
(KG-495)
USA Exact origin unknown, but thought to have come in with cattle or hay from Texas.  Moderately palatable bunchgrass of medium leafiness and forage production.  Easily established and spreads well from seed.  Adapted where annual precipitation is 380 mm or more.  Less productive than 'King Ranch' and other cultivars, but more winter-hardy in cooler environments.  Grows on sandy, medium-textured, and clay soils.  Used alone as summer pasture and for stabilisation of earth structures, diversions, and critical areas. 'Ganada'
(PI 107017, A-1407, NSL 102252)
USA (1979) From Tajikistan, Turkestan.  An erect plant 200-1,500 mm tall tending to form large saucer-shaped clumps with stems curving upward from the perimeter.  More productive than 'Plains'.  Used for range reseeding, dryland pasture and revegetation of disturbed areas. 'Plains'
(PI 477958)
USA (1970) Composite of 30 morphologically similar lines from Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, India, Turkey and Afghanistan.  Higher yielding and more resistant to foliar disease than 'King Ranch';  somewhat less productive but more palatable than Caucasian bluestem (B. bladhii (caucasica).  More winter-hardy than 'King Ranch'.  Used for forage . 'WW-Iron Master'
(PI 301535, WW-535)
USA (1987) Introduced from Afghanistan.  Later in maturity and more robust than other cultivars.  Selected for persistence, spring vigour, leafiness, and productivity on iron-deficient soils (less chlorosis than other cultivars).  High crude protein content.  Used to improve pasture and rangeland, for hay, and soil stabilisation.  Later maturity, more and larger cauline leaves, and a darker green leaf blade colour than 'WW-Spar', and more robust with higher leaf-to-stem ratio than 'Ganada'. 'WW-Spar'
(PI 301573, WW-573)
USA (1982) Introduced from Pakistan, one of the original 30 accessions used to produce 'Plains'.  Selected for persistence, spring vigour, and drought tolerance, maintaining production longer into a drought cycle than other cultivars.  Used for grazing and hay , and for soil stabilisation.

Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng var. songarica

Cultivars

Country/date released

Details

'King Ranch'
(T.O. 144, T-3487, PI 315673, PI 44096, PI 476987, BN-4419-60)
USA (1941) Probably from Amoy (Xiamen), Fujian, China (24.5ºN, 140 m asl, rainfall 1,180 mm).  Very vigorous, prostrate, forming dense sward;  seeds heavily and volunteers aggressively.  Adapted best to clay or rocky limestone.  Less productive than 'Plains' and less winter-hardy than 'El Kan'.  Considered a weed with little production value by many.  However, does persist under poor management, and has the benefit of providing erosion control.

Cultivars

Promising accessions

Country

Details

None reported.