Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm.
Axonopus affinis Chase
Paspalum fissifolium Raddi
Family: Poaceae (alt. Gramineae) subfamily: Panicoideae tribe: Paniceae.
caratao grass, carpet grass, common carpet grass, Louisiana grass (USA); mat grass, narrow-leaved (narrowleaf) carpet grass, durrington grass (Australia); teppichrasengras (German); grama-missioneira (Brazil); zacate amargo (Mexico).
Shallow-rooted (>90 % of roots in the 0-5 cm layer) perennial, initially forming shortly rhizomatous tufts that quickly develop vigorous stolons with relatively short, glabrous oval-section (± 2 x 1.5 mm) internodes; forms a dense mat with foliage 15-30 cm tall, and flowering culms mostly 30-60 cm; can be mowed to a turf. Leaf sheath compressed, keeled, largely glabrous; ligule a fringed membrane 0.5 mm long; blades 4-6 (-8) mm wide, and 5-15 (-28) cm long, flat or folded, glabrous except for sparse spreading hairs on the lower margins of young leaves, bluntly acute at the tip. Inflorescence a panicle comprising 2 or 3 (rarely 4-7) slender, spikelike racemes, paired or sub-digitately arranged on a long slender peduncle; racemes (2-) 3-7 (-10) cm long; spikelets, 1.7-2.8 mm long, 1 mm broad, inserted alternately either side of a flattened rachis; caryopsis tan to pale brown, compressed-ellipsoid to lenticular , 1.4-1.8 mm long. 2.5-3 million seeds per kg.
Differs from A. compressus in having more slender culms and stolons, narrower leaves and shorter, more obtuse spikelets.
North America: South and central USA, Mexico.
Central America and Caribbean: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama.
South America : Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela.
Occurs on low, flat areas in humid and sub-humid warm temperate to tropical woodland and savannah .
Africa, Asia, Australia and the Pacific Islands.
Used as a permanent pasture, ground cover and turf in moist, low fertility soils. It is generally too low growing to be useful in cut-and-carry systems or for fodder conservation .
No record of toxicity.
DM yields are mostly in the range of 1-5 t/ha/yr, even in fertilised grass .
2n = 20, 40, 60, 80.
Commercial seed is mostly produced in the humid sub-tropics, mostly as "opportunity" crops. While in most other grass seed crops, stands are "cleared off" to produce a synchronous crop, and nitrogen fertiliser applied to promote tillering, this is generally not followed for seed crops of this species. Crops ripen unevenly and are mostly harvested non-destructively, providing about 50 kg/ha of seed per pass. Fresh seed should be dried at no more than 35ºC, to avoid damage to the seed.
Susceptible to DSMA, bentazon, bromoxynil, 2,2-DPA and metsulfuron methyl. Tolerant of diclofop methyl.
- Grows on poor soil.
- Good ground cover.
- Tolerates heavy grazing.
- Poor drought tolerance.
- Very low nutritive value.
- Low dry-matter yield.
- Short growing season .
- Barnard, C. (1969) Herbage Plant Species. Australian Herbage Plant Registration Authority; Canberra, CSIRO Australia, Division of Plant Industries.
- Bogdan, A.V. (1977) Tropical Pasture and Fodder Plants. pp. 44-45. (Longman Inc., New York).
- Cassidy, G.J. (1971) Response of a mat grass - paspalum sward to fertilizer application. Tropical Grasslands, 5, 11-22.
- Evans, D.O., Joy, R.J. and Chia, C.L. (1988) Cover Crops for orchards in Hawaii. Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. p. 14.
- Jones, R.M. and Bunch, G.A. (2003) Experiences with farm pastures at the former CSIRO Samford Research Station, south-east Queensland, and how these relate to results from 40 years of research. Tropical Grasslands, 37, 151-164.
- Lima, L.M.S., Alquini, Y., Brito, C.J.F.A. de, Deschamps, F.C. (2001) Degradação ruminal dos tecidos vegetais e composição bromatolÓgica de cultivares de Axonopus scoparius (Flüegge) Kuhlm. E Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm. Ciência Rural, 31, 509-515.
|None released to date.||